A Geometrid caterpillar genus with a wide diet, including many native and introduced species. This one was one of hundreds strolling aimlessly around the footpath, bare sand and walls at a job in Halls Head, Perth. More were busy reducing the kerbside shrubs to even more ragged than they already were, although I’m not sure what species the shrub were, or exactly whichChleniasthis is.
#1677 - Fam. Scatopsidae - Minute Black Scavenger Flies
Also known asDung Midges. Spotted on a ‘Geraldton Carnation’ (Euphorbia terracina).
A small family of about 250 known species, which has been around since at least the Cretaceous. The larvae for most species are unknown, but the ones that are are saprophages, found in decaying plant and animal matter.
Unlike the otherBoryaspecies I’ve found before, this one doesn’t form thickets of tiny tree-like branches and mimiature forests on exposed granite. Instead it has stems that lie on the ground, with narrow needle-like leaves pointing up. It was growing in laterite soil at the bottom of a granite boulder slope, however.
North of Bindoon north of Perth.
#1972 - Thomasia sp.
A genus of small shrubs from the Mallow family, endemic to the SW of Australia, with the exception of the Paper Flower Thomasia petalocalyxwhich is also found in parts of South Australia and Victoria.
I don’t know which of the 30+ species this is, but it was growing in disturbed laterite soil at the bottom of a granite slope north of Bindoon. Some of them do quite well in gardens, in dry and partly shady areas.
Photo by Colin Prickett, on the first day of the WA Naturalists Club outing to Bindoon north of Perth.
There are three known species of these very stick-insect-like katydids, all from coastal regions of SW Western Australia, but I don’t know which one this is.Phasmodesis the only genus in its subfamily. I gather they used to be in the Zaprochilinae, along with similarly phasmid-like genera likeKawanaphilaand the Balsam BeastAnthophiloptera dryas, but I don’t know when they got promoted.
I did find references to a paper titled “The mating biology ofPhasmodes ranatriformis(Orthoptera : Tettigoniidae : Phasmodinae) : a uniquely mute genus of bushcricket from West Australia” by Win Bailey, T. Lebel, so presumably they have that distinction as well.
#1669 - Kawanaphila sp. - Pollen Katydid
Either the Great Tumblr Purge ate the posts, or I’ve somehow never covered these unusual Katydids before, despite have spotted my first one years ago, now. The first one is from the Alison Baird Reserve, and the second from a tiny patch of bushland that briefly survived having the entire surrounding area bulldozed and carted away from a new building development.
These pollen-feeding katydids were first described in 1993 by David C. Rentz, and the eleven known species are only found in the SW, southern parts of South Australian, and western Victoria.
The largest of the Zaprochiline Pollen-feeding Katydids, and a pretty spectacular katydid in all other regards as well. First described in 1983, after one was spotted on Balsam flowers. This was in a Sydney garden, by Densey Clyne. I remember the video segment she did about them, quite vividly, but then she was an amazing naturalist.
Despite being found all along the east coast, including in urban areas, it hadn’t been described before because it spends most of its life high inAngophoratrees, feeding at night, only moving to garden plants and fruit whenAngophorablossom becomes scarce. The long narrow snout is ideal for reach deep into a flower. Adults in this and other Zaprochiline genera hold the wings at a 30-degree angle away from the body, and rest during the day with their bodies pressed close to the trunk or branch of the host plant.
One of the many Wispy Spider Orchids found in SW Australia - this particular species flowers in winter (hencehiemalis), most often after fire and is most common in Wandoo woodland, in damp soils. I spotted these ones on the lower parts of a rocky granite hill north of Bindoon, north of Perth, although the trees were mostly she-oak rather than Wandoo.
#1665 - Camponotus marcens
A species of Carpenter Ant where the minor workers look bizarrely similar to the workers from a completely different genus, the Strobe Ants (Opisthopsis). Found only in the Darling Range (as here, near Bindoon), or the SW Wheatbelt (not far away). Most often noticed running up and down eucalypt trunks (in this case a Wandoo) when they didn’t spot you first and run around to the far side of the trunk
#1666 - Meranoplus fenestratus
If a hardware failure hadn’t eaten my harddrive, AND my external back-up drive, I’d see if I had any suitable Beast-related species to post, but no such luck. So here’s a neighbour of the beast, or at least a neighbour of the last ant I posted.
I spotted this tiny worker on the same Wandoo trunk as theCamponotus marcensminor worker, but as you probably noticed they’re wildly different in appearence, so there was no chance of it being a minum caste of the same species.
There’s at least 80 valid species ofMeranoplus, half of them in Australia, and they’re all omnivores or granivores. They nest underground, are active day and night, and if disturbed roll themselves in dirt and pretend to be dead (although I did find an interesting account of them protecting themselves from other ants). They have very large Dufour’s Glands for their size, and presumably rely on scent trails to navigate regardless of the time of day.
I don’t have much info on this particular species, and the scattered distribution records either have it all over the country or just in Western Australia, but the photos on AntWiki were taken on a treetrunk in Wandoo National Park, east of Perth, so it’s keeping in character that far at least.
Living in a hollow log under a birdbath, and boy was she pissed that people keep lifting it up to get a photo. The barking defense call is typical of the genus, and the source of their common name. Not quite as psychotic as the Asian/Pacific Tokay Gecko, which is also known as the ‘Fuck You Lizard’ from the call and spirited attempts to to bite off your face.
The species is found in rocky areas across most of the southern half of the Australian mainland. It’s more cold-tolerant than most geckos, which might be related to their unusual sociability during the day - multiple geckos will huddle together, apparently to stay warm for the onset of evening.
#1657 - Boletellus obscurecoccineus - Rhubarb and Custard Bolete
With the COVID19 restrictions finally relaxed here in western Australia, we had our first field trip with the WA Naturalist’s Club in months, out to the forest near Dwellingup SE of Perth. I invited members of the WA Insect Studies Society along too, and it appears they were going stir crazy too, since we ended up with over 30 people searching the undergrowth.
One of the many fungi we found was this bolete, a species found in Australia, New Guinea, Borneo, Japan, Korea, Taiwan and Java (from where it was originally described). The flesh is yellow, and bruises blue in most parts of the range, but not in WA, oddly.
A number of Asian species have been synonymised with this one, but a similar species from Africa turned out to be distinct enough to get their own name. Elsewhere in the world the species in ectomycorrhizal with oaks and other decidous species, but in Australia it’s associated with eucalypts.
Edibility is unknown, despite the common name.
#1658 - Fistulina sp. - Beefsteak Polypore
Named for the resemblance to a slab of fresh meat, and indeed it’s quite edible, if collected young, although the taste is somewhat acidic and it may require long cooking. Also known as the ox tongue, ortongue mushroom.
Althought that all assumes it’sFistulina hepatica (although Hepatica itself refers to the resemblance to liver) - it could just as easily beFistulina spiculifer.There seems to be an ongoing argument about whether you can tell you two apart without examining the spores under a microscope, which species of tree they grow on, and which species we actually get in Australia.
Assuming they’re close enough that we can discuss them as the same species, they’re quite widespread in Australia, North America, Africa and Europe. In the northern hemisphereF. hepaticais common on oaks and sweet chestnut, and the brown stain it imparts to oak makes for a valuable timber, as long as the Brown Rot it imparts by dissolving the cellulose with hydrogen peroxide isn’t too advanced. In Australia, it grows from wounds on Eucalypts, and the timber develops long dark streaks.
Another of Chuen Man Chang’s fabulous discoveries - this one was under bark.
Andras Szito, a coleopterist based here in Perth, commented -
“Under high magnification probably you can see that the setae (hairs) look like barbed spear. (There are quite a lot with simple hairs). Many of the native Hide beetles living in spider’s “nests” and I believe the setae serving to keep the homeowner’s fangs away. Since almost all Dermestids (as far as we know) feeding on dry material of animal origin they find enough food in a spider’s nest in the form of insect carcasses. Sorry for being so vague but we know little of the native Dermestid fauna.”
Another find by Chuen Man Chang in Brisbane. This particular species is only known from that area.
The Broad-frons Planthoppers (Family Eurybrachidae, Tribe Platybrachini) are quite diverse in Australia. Adults are generally mottled for camouflage, and live on the trunk or larger branches of Eucalypts andAcacia.They may sidle off sideways, or even backwards, if they think they’ve been spotted, or if really pressed will leap off with a loud TICK and fly away.
Eurybrachid nymphs, on the other hand, have a pair of long wax filament attached to the end of their abdomen, and resemble small insects back to front They even walk backwards to complete the illusion. If attacked, they will leap forward, which confuses predators that were expecting them to jump the other way.
You may have noticed the white fluffystuff attached to her abdomen - that is the powdery wax they pack over and around their eggs, laid on the trunk of the host tree. It’s intended to protect the eggs, but it doesn’t work against the parasitic wasps that target them, or against any ladybeetles that find the eggmass and chow down.
#1656 - Erilla turneri
Chuen Man Chang again. They get some amazing photos of the species around Brisbane.
I don’t have any information on the species, though, beyond it being the only one in the genus, and that it was described by the English entomologist William Lucas Distantin in 1906.
Some outstanding photos by Chuen Man Chang in Brisbane, of a reasonably outstanding fly. I mean, it might not be up to the standarads ofLamprogaster corax, which I posted back at #1600, but it’s still up there.
L. bicoloris an East Coast species, found from the New South Wales Central Coast, up to the vicinity of Brisbane, Queensland. They’ve been observed to gather in small groups on tree trunks, where courtship and social display involves rowing the wings and extending and retracting the mouthparts - basically waving and blowing kisses.
An Agaristine Noctuid found over much of southern Australia, where it eats a wide variety of weeds. They can be a threat to aircraft however, since they attract hungry birds onto runways. This one was probably thinking about pupating, which they do in a burrow.
#1652 - Pantydia sparsa
A moth on a window in Falcon, south of Perth.
A Catocaline Erebid, although getting it down to species took three people since wing markings in this genus can be annoyingly variable. Despite that, the image recognition algorithms at iNaturalist immeadiately pegged it as aPantydia, which is impressive.
P. sparsais found over much of Australia, and in New Zealand, and the caterpillars are found on a wide range of plants.
#1639 - Dicranosterna circe - White Acacia Leaf Beetle
Photo by Chuen Man Chang, Brisbane, Queensland.
Dicranosternasp Paropsine Leaf Beetles are quite diverse, but only ever eatAcacialeaves. This particular species, found only in coastal areas around Brisbane, grows into a pale hemispherical beetle with two small black spots near the shoulders, and narrow dark trim to the elytra.
Photo by Carol Baggerman, QLD
#1640 - Dicranosterna picea - Acacia Leaf Beetle
Photo by Eric Bougie, Deepwater National Park QLD.
This species has a wider distribution than the previous one - along the east coast, all the way from Cape York to Tasmania. It starts off smooth but develops the dalek bumps as it matures, and eventually becomes a reddish-brown beetle with dimpled elytra.
#1641 - Paropsisterna sp.
Photo by Tony Eales in Brisbane.
I could tell it was a Paropsine Leaf Beetle larva, but I had to contact Martin Lagerwey, an expert on the group for more detail. And such interesting details there were -
“The shiny black Paropsisterna have setose larvae and the common ‘fade after death’ ones do not. This is a natural division. The latter group formerly called (Genus) Chrysophtharta were incorrectly synonymized and will probably be re-instated by Chris Reid if he ever gets enough time.”
Photo by Sandra Baumgart, whose grandchild wanted an ID. Gladstone, Queensland.
An impressive caterpillar for an impressive butterfly.
The Tailed Emperor used to be confined to Northern and Eastern Australia (so he photo is from the original range) but since the 1970s populations have shown up across the other mainland states. It’s never common, but is found in a wide range of habitats, on a wide range of food plants.
Adults feed on sap, fermenting fruit, and moisture from dung, which is not unusual for many butterflies, and the males establish breeding territories on the top of hills.